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Gaekwad’S Oriental Series 

Published under ihe Authority ol 
the Government ol His Highness 
the Maharaja Gaekwad ol Baroda. 

( ■ EN'KKAL Kiutok: 

B. Bhattacharyya, M.A., Ph.I»., 

No. LII1 





t Until. Orurtlml (unw, 


Oriental Institute 

Pagee I -152 prints! by l». N. Banerji ni the Banrrji Pram, 
2 , Mahantni Samomuve* Road. Calcutta. ana the 
rnnauuhf by P. Knight at the Baptwt 
Mwnni Prwa, 41. loarr Circular 
Rittd. OaVmtta 


Pnhtiahed by Hrnoytoeh Bhattacharvya. Director, Oriental 
Institute, Bavorfa . on l-*hall o! the CovcmnOTit of Hu 
High nee* the Maharaja Oackuad of Baroda. 

Price Ra. 4-4-0. 


The Gvhyamm&ja Tantra also known as the Tathagata- 
gtihyaka is for the first time presented in original Sanskrit as 
No. L1II of the GaekuxuT s Oriental Series. The immense value 
of the Quhyamm&ja for a critical study of the Tftntric litera- 
ture of India can scarcely be exaggerated not only because it 
is one of the earliest Buddhist Tantras to be writ ten, probably 
in the third century in Aaahga’s time, but also because the 
later writers on Tantra found in it their chief source of inspira- 
tion. Its importance was readily recognised by the Chinese 
who translated it in their Tripitaka in the tenth century and 
by the Tibetans who also made a translation of it which now 
forms |>art of the Tibetan Kangyur. The Quhyamtn&ja 
ushered into existence the element of Sakti in all forms of Yoga 
practices and thus became an object of interest for all those 
who are engaged in the study of the origin and development 
of the Tftntric literature. It abounds in bold and original 
ideas and is rich in explanations of Yaugic terms, practices 
and doctrines, some of which have been treated of in the intro- 
duction together with a notice of problems connected with 
the text. 

It is needless to point out that Yoga, Hathayoga and the 
Tantras are regarded as the greatent contributions of Sanskrit 
to world culture, as their chief objective is to develop the 
hidden powers of mind which when properly evolved have 
been found to be much more powerful than material forces. 
Elaborate rules and regulations and processes have been 
described in these systems which are chiefly concerned 
with spiritual or |«ychical culture. There is nothing in 
the world to compete with them, and in these days of 
•international psychical research congresses and international 
associations for the cultivation of Yoga, a publication of this 
kind is likely to prove very useful for the promotion of 
psychical research. 


Tbe Ouhywmnuija is ordinarily believed to consist of two 
RRrts PurvArdba and I'ttarardha, and there are manuscripts 
in Nepal and Cambridge giving both the parts. But there 
are reasons to suppose that only the first half is genuine and 
tbe second part is a later addition, chiefly because the Uuhya- 
sam&ja is known to later writers as A -1 tuition pa lain or consist- 
ing of only eighteen chapters. a-» also because in the second 
part a considerable |>ortion of the Pra jHopQyarin&caya*iddhi 
is incorporated with chapter colophons and even with the 
name of the author which appears in the body of the book. 
The Pra j nopd yu ri n i*caya*iddhi is the work of Anarigavajra 
who flourished at the end of the seventh century and as this 
work is incorporated in the second book it cannot but 
ho regarded as an addition, and hence this part has boon 
excluded from the present edition. 

The present edition of the Guhya*amaja is baaed on four 
manuscripts of the work belonging to the various MSS. 

A. MS belonging to the Asiatic- Society of Bengal and 
described in the Nepalese Buddhist Literature, p 261 If. of Raja 
Rajendralal Mitrn. 

B. MS in tbe Baroda Oriental Institute No. 13174. 
This is a recent copy of an ancient manuscript in the posses- 
sion of Pandit Siddhihanui Vajracaryya of Nepal, himself 
a Buddhist Tan trie. 

C. MS belonging to the University Library, Cambridge, 
and described in BrndaU’s Catalogue of Manuscripts in the 
University Library, Cambridge, p. 70f. A rotograph copy of 
this MS was obtained from the Cambridge University for 
the purpose of collation. 

R. MS liclonging to the Koval Asiatic Society Library 
of Bombay. It is a very incomplete manuscript of the work 
in which parts of the first and the 16th and the whole of the 
17th and 18th Patala* only are available. The manuscript was 
obtained when the earlier portions had already been printed, 
and hence the readings of this MS for chapter I are given 



in the Errata. Some of these readings are really very 

Our grateful acknowledgements are due in the* first 
instance to the owners of the different MSS Libraries who have 
rendered considerable help by lending their MSS. parti- 
cularly to the Librarian of the Cambridge University Library 
for his promptness in supplying a rotogra/ih copy of the MS. 
Pandits L&lohandnt B. Gandhi and Ramaswumi Sastri of the 
Institute rendered very useful assistance in correcting the 
proofs, ami Mtihudeva Ananta Joshi very kindly prepared 
the index. To these gentlemen the present editor is deeply 

B. Bhattacharyva. 


Tht 9th July, 1931 . 


The first thing in the Gahyj^a>ni/a that 'triki-n a readier is the 
peculiarity of the opening chapter where the Lord is introduced in an 
Assembly of the Faithful as sporting in the aaored knowledge arising 
out of the body, mind and speech of the TathkgaUu in the company of 
numerous Tathftgata* and Bodhiaatlva*. This form of composit ion is 
known aa the Sangiti which is very popular with the Buddhist writers. 
'Hie word SaAgiti means chanting together, and is peculiar to Bud- 
dhism Buddha preached all his life after obtaining enlightenment, 
but he never wrote anything In order that his teachings might be 
preserved his disciple- after hi* death met together ami reproduced his 
teachings and chanted them together. This u the beginning of the 
SaAgtti These SaAgiti- begin with the description of an Assembly of 
the Faithful where Buddha Rhagavftn ootnn* and sits in various 
Suinfidhis and addresses the Assembly on various matters. The first 
SaAgiti* composts! ami chanted together related to the teachings of 
Buddha, but later on whenever new ideas were introduced into Bud- 
dhism they too appeared in the form of SaAgiti*. and the Buddhists 
would not accept anything new uiiIcmi it wa« taught in SaAgtti*. 
The Tfcntric* when they made an attempt to introduce their own 
novel doctrine* into the old cult acre therefore, compelled to intro- 
duce them in the form of SaAgiti*. 

In the development of the SaAgiti literature of the Buddhists 
certain peculiarities are noticeable. First of all. the Sangiti* in later 
days were divided into two distinct groups, one in which BuddliA is 
introduced in sn assembly consisting of Bodhisattva*. Bbiksus. etc., 
and the other in which he is introduced as sporting in the sacred 
knowledge arising out of the body, mind and speech of the Tathft- 
gat-as. The first kind u seen in Hinayana and Mah&y&na works, 
while the second Is met with in most of the Tantras particularly of the 
Yoga and Yogatantra class. Again, in the earlier Kaiigit is mostly the 
description of the Assembly it as a rule, minute and detailed, while in 
the later works it is short and very concise. The description of the 
Assembly in work* like OonHoryftha. MaA}Htrl*>ulakaIpa. and even in 
Gukyammaja is very elaborate and detailed, while in later works like 


the Bhutad&inarn Tanlia. etc., the description is very brief, for the 
Kifbject mutter w introduced at once without many preliminaries. 

Tlie Qukyamm&ja in in the SaCtglti form and as the description of 
the Assembly is fairly elaborate it may be easily classed with the 
earlier Sanctis. Moreover, a* the Guhya*am&)a helongs to the Yoga- 
tuntra claw, the BhagavAn is introduced in the Assembly while sport- 
ing in the sacred knowledge ari-ing out of the body, speech and mind 
of the TathAgatas. in the company of the TathAgatas, DhyAni 
Buddhas. Bodhisattvas and Kuddhaiaktis. If the Guhyamm&ja is to 
lie considered the earliest Buddhist Tantra. for reasons that will be 
given in the sequel, then, it may be regarded also as the earliest work 
of the second class of SaAgftis described above 

The Snfigltis are classed a* Buddha varans or the wools spoken 
by the Ruddhu and *- such their translations in Tibetan find place in 
the Kangvur collection, while the other Tantras, which arc compoaed 
by Buddhist professor*. when translated into TibrUn. arc included in 
the Tangyur collection. The GukyaMiin&ja heiqg a SaAglti, was tran- 
slated into Tibetan and its Tibetan translation finds place in the 
Knngyur collection ' The work also attracted the attention of the 
Chiltcae at a time when interest evinced in the Tantras was growing 
in China, and the work translated into Chineae along with many 
other Tintric work* in the latter |«rt of the loth century A.P.* 

The purpoac for which the G'aAynwiMA/a was written -reins to lie 
•« indicate a short and correct path for obtaining Kuddhahnod or 
emancipation, through the Yaugic proccssea. While giving directions 
for the attainment of emancipation it incidentally mentions many 
other minor perfections or Siddhis In- means of which the womhipper 
is cnabkxl to gain a variety of magical power*. Thus in the 1 8th 
chapter it is said that the Siddhis or perfections are of two kinds, 
namely. SAmAnya (ordinary) and Uttama (excellent). The Siddhis 
like Antardh&na or miraculous disappearance, etc., are known to 
belong to the SAmAnya or the first kind. But the Buddhas have 

declared that the attainment of Budilhahood is of the highest or the 

« tte-tt. )• So. i«ii II .hnr it alg id Karva-TaUU«a»a*k-ritta raha.yn 
giiliya -uniiAJa nlma n-.ahtkaljwrAja 

* Xanjio i A Cvalofmtof At Chimtt in^arion tf At BtxUAi* Tripitoko, p. 2ij, 
no. 10*7. GtAruamaja -a* tr-mUuU A.D. MO-ltUi. .hums Ih* retgn ml the Sun 
Dynasty A.D. 



second kind. 1 The second kind of Siddhi can only be attained by 
having recourse to the practice of Yoga with its six limbs.* 

The aim of the Ouhyiuntndfa k further illustrated In' the follow- 
ing verse: — 

•ti«nfta»njifl fuvif't i p. 27. 

‘ Xo one can succeed in obtaining perfection through pr«x-e**e* 
which are difficult *nd |*inful ; but one can »uceeed easily through the 
satisfaction of all desires.' 

In earlier days the rules and regulations for the worshipper in 
HfnayAna and MahAyAna were very severe, involving much in- 
convenience and great bodily sufferings. Even then, the attainment 
of actual Buddhnhood meant an inordinately long time or even many 
births. But the OuhyiimimAfa prescribe* a proon* by which emanci- 
pation can he obtained within the shortest time pnaaible. ami even in 
one birth.* 

Another purpose for which the (iuhy,i»anUi)a was written M'cm* to 
lie to introduce the clement of 6akti into Buddhism particularly for 
obtaining emancipation through Yoga ami SamAdhi. We find, for 
instance, in the opining chapter the Lord of the Assembly transform- 
ing himself in many way- in the form of the five DliyAni Buddhas and 
associating each of the Buddhas with a 6akti. Moreover, in the 
18th chapter while describing the different reramonio* of initiation 
(Abhifcka) mention ia made of I*ra)AAbhi?eka or initiation of the 
disciple with Prajnn or Sakti. Tlierr it i- said that tlio preceptor 
should take by the hand the &akti who is beautiful, agreeable to the 
disciple, ami also an adept in the practiceof Yoga, and place it on the 
hand of the disciple after citing the TathAgata* as witnesses. Then 
after placing his own hand on the head of the disciple he should say 
that Huddhahood is impossible of attainment by any other means and. 
therefore, this VidvA should la- accepted The worldly phenomena 

1 w"t« ; aie« fksi: wiw^rt tfw • i 

fwfwawwfwasiuier aw«w*ww* I 

* * p. IBJ. 

* w*nnjr«f'irw unmgvnni i 
Slidpm we srwA I 

P . I«i 

» »fW« wwfw *x nw w-f w « s - wdWww wiawramat ■* vfw W 

a-wfk i 

p. 144. 



thnngh non-dual in c&enee appear to be dual ; therefore, yon should 
never abandon her in life. This is what is known as Vidyftvrata 
or the vow of VidyA and anyone who disregards this cannot obtain 
perfection of the Uttama kind.' 

In the work stress is laid again and again on the necessity of 
having Saklis for the purpose of Yaugic practices, and this seems to lie 
one of the chief reasons which leads one to suppose that the fiuhya- 
mtndja for the tint time introduced the Sakti worship in Buddhist 
Yoga, and that is why all the later authoritire referred with great re- 
verence to OuAyafamAja which enjoyed an authoritative position 
amongst the Buddhist TAn tries an long as Buddhism lasted in India. 

Another service which (3ukya$amdfa did was to do away with all 
disciplinary measures prescribed for the followers of Buddhism since 
its very inception. All kinds of luxuries such as flesh, fish, win®, 
women, eto., were prohibited for the followers of Buddhism in the first, 
stage as well a* in the siitnrqarnt phase*. But in the Qvhyu*ain&jn 
everything is permitted. Not only flesh of the incwt harmless kind 
but all kinds of flesh-meat are |*<rinitt«d such as the flesh of olephunt*. 
horses, dogs, cows, nay, even of human beings. Blood of men and 
beast*, and wine of any quality and in any quantity could be taken by 
the w'orship|wr who followed the Ouhytuntnafa Tnnlra } 

Furthermore, this Tantra has no respect for uselras objects of 
reverence. In one place It definitely forbids its followers to erect 

* For I — 

«>*’• fs«j» fw^ai vftrr i 
vrd* vflr vgtww: mrama i 

vai gwt fk»? fr wg**<i javfnvi i 

sew sa fiofiot unj i 
aivaiai gawria vftsrr i 
■rqrffv>a aaT* m wari am ag! ■ 
« aaraagra! i 

afirasf* «i> a*: fafama w «ffanr i 

nfw«ai«:fgw=trw sg-«t« 

afarata vast® ataata atfrwwg i 
wignr*«*ni a ar^a fairway i 

arstagaiitaa aiaatia fafaar i 

p. ini. 

p. 36. 



Gaityaa, or to recite Irom the sacred works of Buddhism or to draw 
magic circles (Mandala), or to offer objects of worship to the three 
great jewels of Buddhism, namely, the Buddha, the Dhanua and the 
Sangha. 1 For a Yogi they hare no real existence and are, therefore, 
considered by him to be objects deserving of nothing but rank in- 

The OvkyaaomAj* even got** a step further. It definitely asks its 
followers to disregard all social laws which to a Yogi have the least 
importance. ’ You should freely immolate animals, utter any number 
of falsehoods without ceremony, take things which do not belong to 
you, and even commit adultery ' is the advice given to tile followers 
in one of the striking stanzas : — 

Btfami wwr 4*4 * i 

* w*i uni iU*i wtfwmufq i p. 120. 

Verily, tlu* Yogi who has grasped the real truth, who has realized 
Sonya, to him the whole world ap|*ar< as a drama without a real 
substratum; before him the duality in the world disappears and all 
things are to him mere appearance. He cannot, therefore, have any 
respect for any objects of reverence or feel a haired for any object 
t reated with disdain by ordinary mortals, or any law s social or divine, 
llis mind develops tremendous energy and he is one with the |*owcr 
that create#, maintain* and destroys the universe, the power which has 
been designated Pari Baku in the Hindu Tantrasand which is defined 
in one of the finest stanzas by UminandanAtha in hi* .V Uyoltaxn' 


iriflmm^* unri f»*^ : 

*n to ufw^f i 

• The Para Sakti is she to whom no part of the univerae remains 
unseen, there is no king who does not obey her. there is no scripture 
made by others which is not known to her.’ 

As regards the origin of the Gihgtmmaja Tonlra a very interest- 
ing account is given in the seventeenth chapter of the present work. 

jwfa w w i 

y^fit a I 

* .Vi 

StrUs, p. t 

of Dr 

p. 142. 

m No. XXm of th« Oaekvaf, Oriental 



Hen* the Lord declares that he never preached the secret doctrines 
esibodicd in the Qk >JBM 11/« in his past myriads of Kalpa* ; even 
tvhen he came to this earth as Buddha Dipankara or as KaAva pa 
Buddha he did not preach them because people in those times were not 
sufficiently enlightened to grasp the true import of these exceedingly 
mysterious doctrine*. But then the followers of the Guhyiuani6/a 
school were able to attain enlightenment and Buddhahood in an 
instant. Formerly. Bodhisattvaa never could expect to attain 
Buddhahood by persistent exertion in myriads of Kalpas. But one 
who practises the GnKyammd)a Tanlra is certainly able to take his 
place amongst the Tathlgatas as a Buddha in this very life.' 

This shows that the people following Buddhism were not satisfied 
with the doctrines of original Buddhism or even Mah&y&na in its 
Madhyamaka and YogftoAra aspects They wanted something definite 
and some easy procem to obtain Buddhahood ; they wanted a method 
by which Nlrvipa could hr attained even in one life or even earlier; 
in short, a magical formula to obtain the final liberation. The Guhya- 
mm/lja supplied this craving of the general public following Buddhism, 
and that probably for the first time, and that is the reason as will l>© 
shown later why it became extremely (lopular. 

All Tin trie works abound in technical terms ami a phraseology 
peculiar to them, and it becomes sometimes very difficult to under- 
stand the true import of thcee terms. Usually . in the TSntrio works 
an explanation of the technical term* is not given either because they 
are well-known amongst those who practise the Tantras or because the 
au thorn intentionally did not like others than the initiated who learned 
their meaning from their recognized preceptors to know their secret*. 
But in this respect Ouhtfammaja is remarkable as having devoted an 
entire and. perhaps, the longest chapter to an elalmrate explanation 
of technical terms. The eighteenth chapter, therefore, is the most 
important and instructive chapter in the whole work for in it 
the doctrines and practices are elaborately explained. Terms like 
fiuhya. Samftja, Yoga. Tattva. Rahaaya. Parama. Bodhicitta. Vidyft- 

* ’ was-ru wauwnnti 

*wr wtv»! wvaifi BwrBBunuw 

BU^^vf***** B H : f« *1 U | IPt urft: I 

varan w*la Sb u«rit* but b wif***t i 
s'fvHW- BSSUTSH «l vu ft* *n«i I 

ni tTTjH' 
. Hf<%* wwfw ^WWBTWTfi»VB> 

p. 144. 



puru$a, Vajradhfk. Jinajik. Ratnadhfh. Arolik. PrajnAdhrk, Kula, 
Moha. Dve$a, Riga, Vajra, Rati. Sampad. Yam&ntakrt, PrajAintakp, 
PadmAntakrt. VighnAntakrt. Saraantac-aryA. .MantracaryA, Japa. 
Mudrana, Dharmodaya, Sambara. SattvArtha, Mapdnla. Nyftsa, Pufpa, 
Caitya. .Iftanaeakra. Pads, Codana. Prerana. AmantranA, Bandhana, 
Abhigcka, VidyAvrata, Pa&cAmrta. Paftcavirya. SAmAnya-Siddhi. 
Dttama-Siddhi, UpAya. Upcya. etc., are some of those which are clearly 
defined in the 18th chapter. This is not the place to explain these 
terms and those who are interested in their interpretation would do well 
to study the 18th chapter, particularly the speech of the TnthAgutu 
in reply to a series of questions put to him by the Bodhisattva*. 1 

Amongst the terms explained special attention may l«e invited to 
the meaning of U|>Aya. The explanation given here will show how 
the OukyaMim&ja Tantra ia closely connected with the Yoga system of 
PataAjali, or how the Tsntric practices are entirely baaed on Yoga. 
Up Ay a is described here as of four kind*:* 8evA. UpasAdhaim. 
SAdhana ami MahAsAdhana. SeTA ia again Nub-dividad into two, 
namely the SAmAnya SevA and UUaina SevA. SAinAnva consists of 
four Vajraa uml the Uttama consists of the nectar of knowledge The 
four Vajra* an-: first, the conception of SonyatA. second, its Irans- 
f urination in the form of the germ syllable (Blja). third, its development 
in the form of the deity, and fourth, the external representation of 
the deity.* 

In the Uttama SevA, Yoga with its six limit- should Is- employed, 
namely, PratyAhAra, DhyAna. PrAnAyAma DhAranA. Anusmrti and 
SamAdhi. PratyAhAru i« here explained as the process by which the 
ten sense organs (indriyas) are controlled. DhyAna is explained a* 
the conception of the five desired objects through tin- five DhyAni 
Buddhas. This DhyAna is again of five kinds : * Vitarka. VicAra. 

p P . im 

* vwa fffftwqremag i 

•nvw *1 ^ wgawg I 

* ■vwa wa'witw w 

vwa jpntrfffW f»tfl t i 

wi^a wiwwwrg i 

vfWaue'jwta aetata towi vwg i 

* si ftw** a Srf>ni* iw wwt i 
fasi*i«tvir si« aspf •*'aayw ,: n 

p. 162 . 

pp 1 62 -a. 

163 . 



Prlti, Sukha and EkAgratA. Pranay&ma is the control of the breathing 
psocesa by which breath, which is of the nature of the five Bhfitas or 
element* and fire kinds of knowledge, is regarded a* a lamp and is 
placed on the tip of the none in the form of a jewel with five colours 
and is meditated upon. DhAranA- is the meditation of one’s own 
Mantra on the heart, and the restraint of the jewel of the sense-organs 
placing the same in the PrAnabindu. When this is done Kimittas 
(signs) which are of five kinds 1 make their appearance. First, in the 
form of MaricikA (mirage), second in that of smoke, third in that of 
tire flies, fourth in that of a light, and fifth in the form of a constant 
light like that of a cloudlet* sky. Anusmrti is the oooaUat meditation 
of the object for which the exercise is undertaken and by this Prati- 
bhiua or revelation takes place. Through the combination of the two 
olernonts, PrajftA and UpAya, all existing objects are meditated as one 
lump. Their meditation in the Bimba (lump) and the suddon attain- 
ment of transcendental knowledge is what is known as KamAdhi. 1 

In the oounw of further explanation of tJj*asAdhana mention is 
made that the object of UpaaAdhana is to visualize the deity and 
this should lie done for six months without any restriction as regards 
food and other desired object.. And if within this time the wor- 
shipper is unable to visualize the deity he should thrice perform the 
same proof**. And if even then the deity does not present himself 
Iteforo the worshipper and Bodhi is not obtained he should then oom- 
mcnoe Hatliayoga to attain his object and by this he is certain to 
attain omniscience. ' 

Now this brings us to the interesting question of the connection 
of Tantra with Hathayoga which has been recommended here as the 
extreme step to be undertaken by the worshipper in order to visualize 
the deity when it is not possible to do so otherwise. Now, does it 
mean that every worshipper should practise first Hathayoga or that 

vws sftfww'wiv wsiaxr fifihswq i 
W&tl wtfWrUi* Wqw 1 

vwssi firm assufwwq i 


•iu# frmfiis fiwni i 

•ifkfir uisfswfs- Msifsfrfif rfkc i 

vww g eaiw* q*sw« m «nri i 

p. ite. 

p. l«. 



ho should do so only when he fails to achieve his end by other means. 
Anyone who is conversant with Hathayoga practices will be able lo 
say that to become an adept in Hathayoga in all its branches will 
require several birth* ; those who practise it know full well that they 
are unable to master it in one life-time even when he is instructed by 
an expert. Moreover, it is well-known that experts in Hathayoga do 
not enjoy psychic powers through Hathayoga practice*, although 
they are able to control their circulation, breath, voluntary and 
involuntary musclea and perform many physical feats which appear 
almost superhuman. In order that the Hafhayogins may obtain 
special spiritual power* they have to take recourse to RAjayoga or the 
Tantra* or both. Thu* it appear* that the followers of the Guhyn - 
*amAja School must be Hathayogin* first and then take to Tftntric 
practices, and when they find that TAntric practices are unable to give 
Skldhia they must take it for granted that their physical body con- 
tains certain impurities which are to be removed by means of Hatha- 


It is therefore clear that Tantra* begin where Hafhayoga »Mid*. 
Moreover, it is obvioua that there is absolutely no tue taking to the 
practice of Tantra without tint being an cx|iert in Hathnyogu. and 
t hat Tnntras are not meant for ordinary people 

The Uuhyiiwnv\ja al-o abound* in reference* to numerous magical 
practice* and gives direction* for the attainment of minor Siddhis and 
the performance of marvels. The six cruel rite* of the Tantras though 
not named together appear, nevertheless, in the hook and elaborate 
directions and Mantras are prescribed to attain the desired Siddhi. 
Thus MAruna (destruction of enemies). Ucc A tana (destruction of dwell- 
ing houses). VaAlkarana (enchanting). Stambhana (restraining), Akar- 
*ana (attracting), and S&ntika (propitiatory ritee) arc all stated in the 
work. Beside*, Mantras for resisting or destroying armies sent by 
an enemy king, causing rainfall in times of drought, vanquishing 
opponents in a wordy duel, causing floods to disappear, reviving 
persons from the effect of snake bite, etc., are some of the marvels 
for which practical methods are given in this work.' 

The keynote of the whole work, however, is struck in the first 
.chapter where the speaker of the Aafembly multiplies himself by 
sitting in different SamAdhis (meditations) and constructs the Mandala 

* .So* Chapter* 13. 14. and 15 and especial)? page* 65. 67. 64, 67. 66. 



or magic circle of the five Dhy&ni Buddhas, their Saktis or counter- 
part* and the four guardians of gate*. The Lord Bodhicittavajra was 
first requested by the distinguished memlier* of the Aaaemhly to 
reveal the GuhyaMitAi/a. and in reply he said that thin was so difficult 
that doubts were even entertained by the Tath&gatas, not to speak of 
the Bodhisattvo* who were much below them in intellectual excellence. 
The members of the Assembly pressed him again to do ao saying that 
for the sake of the attainment of the knowledge of the Tath&gaias and 
for obtaining the supernormal power* the Ouhs/aMim/iju may lie 
revealed. The Lord then willingly began sitting in different SamAdhis, 
and reciting the different Mantra* by which he transformed himself in 
the forms of the TathAgata* and placed them a« his replicas in the 
different parts of the Mandala or magic circle. 

First, he sat in the meditation called the JftAnapradipavajra and 
uttered the Mantra Vajradhfk belonging to the I)vesa family. Imme- 
diately he transformed himself as Ak^obhya and made him sit in the 
place where he a as originally sitting. Next, he sat in the Karnaya- 
samhhnvavajrn meditation and uttered the Mantra Jinajik, belonging 
to the Mohrt family and forthwith named his second transformation »* 
Vairocana and made him ait in front of him. Thereafter he *at in t he 
lUtnasambhavavajrairl meditation and uttered the Mantra Katnadhrk 
belonging to the CintAmaqi family He transformed himsell im- 
mediately anil named him as Ratnaketn and made hint sit towards 
the south. Again, he sat in MaharAgaMinihhaYBvajra meditation 
and uttered the Mantra Arnlik belonging to the VajrarAga family. 
He named the new transformation as the lord of the Ixikeftvara 
MnhAvidyA or AmitAbha and made him sit behind him. Then he sat 
in the Amoghasamayasambliavavajni meditation and uttered the 
Mantra PrajfiAdhrk belonging to the SamayAkar-sqakula or popularly 
known as the Samavakula. He named this new transformation as 
Amoghavajra and made him sit towards the north. 

When this set of five male emanations came out from the l/ml 
he turned his attention to bringing out an equal number of female 
emanations by transforming himself. Thus Dvesarati emanated who 
was seated in the centre. Moharati. similarly, was seated in the eastern 
corner, frsyarati in the southern corner. Ragarati in the western corncv 
and Vajrarati in the northern cxirnrr. 

It is needless to- point out that the five female emanation* were 
also associated with the fivfc DhyAni Buddhas belonging to the five 



different families (Kulas) of Dvesa Moha. Riga, CintAiiiapi and 
Samaya. Thus Dveaarati associated with Aksobhva, MoharatT 
with Vairocana, frsyArati with Ratnasambhava. R&garati with 
AmitAbha and Vajrarati with Amoghasiddhi. 

Further on. the laird sat in four more Samadhis and transformed 
himself four times each time as the guardian of one of the four gate* 
after reciting four different Mantras such as YamAntakrl. Pr&jfiAn- 
takft, Padmantakrt and VighnAntakn Thus YainAntaka was seated 
in the East, PrajhAntaka in the South. PadmAntaka in the West and 
VighnAntaka in the North. 

The Mantjala of the five Dhyani Buddhas is now complete. It 
may be seen from the above that the Mandala is not an external 
object but the manifestation of one Lord in the different form*. The 
magic circle is nothing hut a detailed mental exorcise on the part of 
the I.ord, for the instruction of the TathAgata* and the Bodhisattvm 
asHomblcd near him. The fivo DhyAm Kuddhaa as we know from 
other references in the Buddhist TAntrie literature repreaant the five 
Skamlha* or elements of which tho whole creation is composed 1 The 
DliyAin Buddhas are again associated with their &akti* which, on tho 
one hand, show that the Skandhaa develop |k.wct only when associat- 
ed with their &aktia. and on the other hand show that the TAntrios who 
want to develop power should always lie associated with their Hoktis 
or female counterparts. Thua from the first chapter it become* clear 
that the Tantra given instruction on the five DhyAm Buddhas recom- 
mending the uie of female counter|iarts in Yaugie exercise** in order 
to develop mental power. 

The development of Bodhieitta is one of the most interesting 
topics of all MahayAna works ami as such the UuhyaMvnaja also 
devotes a chapter on the same subject. To the TAntrie" the* Bodhi- 
citta is the most important because their chief object is to develop 
the Bodhieitta in order to attain a variety of superhuman powers 
through Yaugie exercises. Asa matter of fact, the whole Maqdala of 
the five Dhy&ni Buddhas in the first chapter is the creation of the 
Bodhieitta and nothing else. It i* this Mandala which is capable of 
giving all pow ers sought for by them including the Buddhahood which 

JAanan4JKi, op. rit.. p. 41. 


IT ftW! 



according to the other method? requires million? of live* in the cycle 
M transmigration. But the definitions given in the t*cond chapter 
of the Quhtpuamdja arc all mysteriously worded and it becomes difficult 
to oomprehend the nature of Bodhicitta particularly for one not 
practising the Yaugic exercises. When the members of the Assembly 
requested the Lord toexplain the Bodhicitta, he instead of answering 
them direct asked them to originate the Citta in the form of K&ya, 
KAya in the form of Pitta and the Citta by the transformation of 
Vik. 1 At this the Bodhi*attva* after commingling their own KAya. 
VAk and Citta in the same way as that of the Lord, exclaimed : How 
wonderful it is that though tho auspicious and adamantine combi- 
nation of KAya. VAk and Citta never originate, it is known to have 
an origin! * 

Then the Lord after sitting in a special meditation gave his 
own definition of the Bodhicitta: 

*Mtf wuemrrt wn*n » 

Tf* Ml ft f MIC «!<{ Miff I ftfW»fJl | |». 11. 

'Neither the perception of the al«cncc of existence in non- 
existence can be called |>crceptiou. nor the percept ion of non-existence 
in existence can be discovered.’ 

Later on. Vairucana sat in another Samidhi ami gave out his 
own definition of Ifcxlhiotta. * My Citta is such that it. is bereft of 
all existence, and is unconnected with tho Skandhus, Dh&tus and 
Aynlanas and such thought-categories as the subject and the object, 
is without a beginning and is of the nature of tionya like all existing 
objects which arc really Sflnya in essence.’ 

wfMrcfnni w*reiwrvi«toi*OTTWff»f uMs*tiww«mMi whrw- 
MlfJipOB ^flflMITM I p. 12. 

Next came the turn of Aksobhya who sal also in a special 
8amAdhi and gave out another account of the Bodhicitta. lie said: 

T** MTfl n VHT f * vrffT ! 

'Mtf mf*Tf liUTWfMf ftfvfW | p. 12. 

1 fww meuii* wra fewieiiw 

uaiBitefli i p- ll. 

* si* ff SSVMUB I 

wssrcv'T'S* vi'w’t i 


i NTRODr cnos. 


• Bodhicitta is that whirh is without substance like the sky, and 
which constantly thinks of the existing objects as without origin, anc^ 
in which there are neither objects nor their qualities.’ 

Next Ratnaketu gave hb* own definition of Bodhicitta after 
similarly sitting in a special Samadhi. 

wii! sttm}w vrfvmftiitr i 

siMTnwwwtt t» wtfra i p. 12. 

' The Citta which comprehend* all existing objects as non- 
existent und bereft of the qualities of objects, but originate* from the 
Nair&tmya (voidneos) of all worldly objects is called the Bodliioitt*.’ 

Amitabha next give* another account of the Bodhicitta : 

v»« a wm « ^ mt»«t i 

WTfll(Wf|l( if* MTT | p. 12. 

• Because the Dharma* (oxiMing object*) have no origin there is 
neither existence nor thinking. It is called existence (hhUva) just as 
the sky which is non-existent is said to ex bn ' 

Then comes the turn of Amoghasiddhi who give* the following 
account of the Bodhicitta : 

u^fanMtatrt vwfc ■ wsntr i 

* | p. l.'l. 

• The existing objects are naturally resplendent (PrahliAavarAh) 
and they arc pure in oseenor like the sky. The Citta where there 
is neither enlightenment nor comprehension (abhi*amava) is called 


On the conclusion of all these definitions the Bodhisattvas as- 
aembled were delighted. and they recited GAtliM extolling the Bodhi- 
cittu which was characterised as of the nature «»f pure truth (&uddha- 
tnttvartha), purity (SuildhArtha). originating from the voidness of all 
worldly phenomena (Dharmanair&tmyasambhQta). the giver of Bud- 
dhahood (BuddhabodhiprapQraka). absence of thought-construction 
(nirvikalpa). without any hasis (nir&lamha), good all round (samanta- 
bhadra), beneficial to all brings (sattvirtha). originator of Bodhi Mind 
(Bodhicittapravartaka), embodiment of Bodhi practice* (BodhicarvA), 
great thunderbolt (MahAvajra). as pure as the mind of the Tathag&tas 
(Cittam tAthAgatam Suddhain). the holder of the thunderbolt which is 
the combination of the Kaya. Vik and Citta <<K&yav&kcittavajrad- 
hfk) and the beatower of perfection (BudllhabodhipradAtA). 



The above definition and characterisation of Bodhicitta will at 
puce reveal the mysterious nature of the Bodhicitta which can bo 
comprehended only by those who have attained some degree of per- 
fection in the Yaugic practices, and cultivated what is called the pay- 
chical faculties. The whole Tantra of OuMyumim/ija, therefore, is con- 
cerned with this mysterious phase of the mind and gives various 
methods of a practical nature for the guidance of all those who make 
the development of the psychic force a* the mimiwnm bon urn of their 
life. The instructions embodied in the hook, the directions for their 
mode of life, and the nature of special experiences apply only to the 
Yogis who have attained some degree of spiritual |irrfection. This is 
very important to remember while handling TAntric Literature, other* 
wise serious misunderstandings are likely to arise hi case the Tan trim 
are interpreted in the ordinary way without special reference to Yoga 
and the cultivation of psychical faculties All the misinterpretations 
of Tantra centre round this one fact, and all the abuse* that have been 
most vehemently poured forth by scholars are due to their not 
comprehending this one point of supreme importance.' 

The fifth chapter of the OuAj/wniudfo is one of the most im. 
I'ortant and intonating chapter. in the whole work. In this chapter 
the Lord declared in the Assembly that emancipation through the Tan- 
trio path prescribed in this Tantra i» possible ol attainment for ull 
men howsoever vicious, rrurl or immoral they may be. Nay, even 
incestuous fiersons are best for obtaining emancipation through 
Mahfty Ana. 

When he had just finished his speech there was great indignation 
amongst the Bodhisattvas and volleys of protest came from them : 
• Why Oh Lord ! the master of the TathAgatas 1 are you taking 
recourse to thc**> sinful utterance* in a respectable Assembly full of 
the TathAgatas V * 

The Lord expressed great surprise and said : Oh Kulaputra* 
do not speak thus. The conduct I have preached is known ns 
the Rodhi conduct which is immuta!4e (dharmatA). and pure*, and 

* In view of what hu bran aaUI above Itaja Kajmdra Lai Mitra’a remark* on Um 

0«Ajre«m5/a in his Liu~m*r r. p. Ml f.. can hardly l- lustifled. 

Ha understand ing of lb« last has no rslalawt to it* mystic nature of lb* work and tha 
practicca of Yoga it inculcated 

* fan* was:* s«sw ws*u-s*sswre*wms ^wrfsaswtf <’tm wisA t 

p. 21. 



is considered as such by the Buddhas who have realized the true 
essence (sArajA&nin&m). and which springs (rum the interpretation of 
the essential truth (saradharmArthasambhOta).' 1 

Immediately these words were uttered, all the Bodliisattva* in 
the Assembly became frightened, confused and fell down sense- 
leas. 1 The TathAgataa who could realize the truth of the assertions 
of the Lord in the Assembly remained unaffected, and they requested 
the Lord to revive the Bodhisattvas who could not realize the truth 
owing to ignorance. The Lord then sat in a special meditation, and 
when the rays issuing out of hk person touched the unconscious 
RodhirattVM they were all revived and sat in their respective places. 1 
and recited several tJatha* in the prakc of the I-ord. 

Now this story of the miracle, interesting as it is, may lie 
explained in several ways. First of ail, probably the Lord was unable 
to explain how the conduct he had prescribed Wore wm the right 
conduct , and. therefore, had recourse to a miracle which Imd always 
in the past l»ecn regarded as most effective in vanquishing the argu- 
ment- of un opponent, or because the protmt of the Bodhisattva* was so 
vehement that ho found it impossible to oonvince them without a 
miracle. Or it may pmlmbly be as words by themselves are not suffi- 
cient to explain things which can only bo realised by self intros- 
pection he had recourse to a miracle. It may also be possible that the 
ignorance of the Bodhisattva* waa bo oollossal that them was no 
ordinary course left to the Lord to make them realize the truth with- 
out a miracle. Whatever may have been the purpose of the miraele, 
this much is certain that the Bodhkattvas did realize the truth of the 
preachings of the Lord on Bodhieonduct during thetirne they remained 
unconscious, which they could not understand when it w as convoyed by 
words. The (>AthAs which the Bodhisattvaa addressed to the Lord 
at the end of the 5th chapter are sufficient to show that the miracle 

Y*f WT WWITT U¥T M;l| WTI *jfi**i^ i 
WTVWlduwVUI VVT S>fvwfV«e^ I 

- ww ftfwwwr Qfm: wwrai ffwiar **s*i i 

p 21. 


w »nrvw 


^ ^ *Yf**n*r iN fwr * 

p- *1. 



of the Lord was eminently successful and that the hostile Bodhiaaitvaa 
h^d ultimately come round. 

Once again the RodhUattvas protected when the Lord preached 
in the 9th chapter that omniscience can be attained and the truth of 
the live Kulas can he realised and practised by having recourse to 
theft, adultery, defamation, falsehood, etc. The Bodhisattvaa charac- 
terised hi« preachings as strange for they were not to he found in all 
the worlds of sentient beings. 1 This time the Lord did not have re- 
course to miracle* but coolly gave an explanation in word" which are 
often quoted as authoritative by later Tintric writer* of Buddhism. 

’ Do not. Oh Kulaputras. give this a had name, a hateful name 
For what reason ? Oh Kulaputras, the conduct of attachment 
(lUgacaryAl i* ‘he same as the conduct of the Bodhianttvaa (Bodhi- 
sattvacary*) which is the bmt conduct (AgraoaryA).' • For instance 
Oh Kulaputras. space is to be found everywhere, all wordly pheno- 
mena an^ to h<« found in space. The phenomena do not Itclong to the 
KAmadhatu. nor to HOpadhatu, nor to Artpadhatu. nor to the four 
MahAbhQtav Thu*. Oh Kulaputras, all worldly phenomena are to 
!«• understood. It is for this reason the Tathigatas tea oh Dharmn 
after understanding the intellectual excellence of the different beings. 

It is exactly in thi* manner on the analogy of space that the 
discipline* enjoined liv thr TathAgata* should Is- understood • For 
instance. Oh Kulaputras. it b well-known that smoke originate* from 
the combination of three factor* : namely, the churning rod (KAnda), 
the churning pot (Mathanlya), and the efforts made by the hands 
of u person (punisahastavyAvAma). From that smoke fire is gene- 
rated. That firo doe* not naidc cither in the churning rod or in the 
churning pot or in the effort made by the hands of a person. Tlius. 
Oh Kulaputras. the conduct of the Tathagatas should he understood, 

constant coming and going.' 1 

1 fan* s« «!■ i « nf* sfs awijwfafcwa waaftwaojwfitfni'a 

aiae'aaaaa’tfawwaaar* wait t i p. 17 . 

* at f»S»i lit ^ta*hrt wjfbmwl Vtaigwu i a>j wmMls i eta- 

wr o^a ^fsawaw a^a awr i p. S7. 

* wfa am w^w w awS^a w saaawwrwi* a viTt<a aw 

nr^wafii i a wrffed a RwSYefwrft a saaawaiwa- 

fam- i «r*ka f «3«; aaawaaavasar i aaa!*** ajftf»i i 




When tht* speech was made by the Lord the Bodhisattva* 
became astonished and with eye* dilated in surprise recited the 

fsflUWJ* TCT sicfwtf filTlwa I 

p. 38 

' These moat wonderful doctrine* which are like the space and are free 
from any thought-construction and pure in essence preach what may 

be called the “ Restraint 

The above will also appear to the general reader an somewhat 
mysterious because the language in which such psychic matters are 
taught is really mysterious. This language which has boon desig- 
nates! the SandhyAbhAsA or the Twilight language can he interpreted 
in two ways, the ordinary and the psychic. But the subject matter of 
the above conversation is the well-known rousing of the Kuiplalinl 
power through association with Irakli*. Certain disciple* of Yoga aro 
so dull that their Kundalinl power is not roused ordinarily unices 
there is intense nervous excitement. The fire in the above example is 
the Kuijijalinl power, which is independent of the Yogi or the Aakti, 
just as the fire i- independent of the churning rod or the churning pot. 

Amongst the deities named in the Ouhyawn/tyo the DhyAni 
Buddhas are most important They are five in number, namely, 
Akjobhya, AmitAbha, Vairocana. Anioghasiddhi and Ratnasitmliliava. 
and these five being the progenitors of the five Kula* or families re- 
present the corner stone on which the whole structure of the Bud- 
dhist Pantheon is raised. Besides these, the BuddhaAaktis are also 
mentioned who are associated with the DhyAni Buddhas as their female 
counterparts. The five arc named as LocanA. MAmaki. TArA, PAndarA 
or PAndaravAaini and SamayaUrA. Further, there are mentioned the 
four Guardians of gates who arc represented by Prajftlntaka. PadrnAn- 
taka. YamAntaka and YighnAntaka These are all familiar figures 
to the students of the Buddhist Pantheon and they are very often 
represented in sculptures and in the paintings of magic circles coming 
from Ne|»al and Tibet. Herein also is mentioned the group of four 
deities who usually accompany ManjuSri or goddess UsnijavijayA in 
later works, 1 without any reference to the main deities Maiiju&ri or 
UsnlsavijayA. They are Acala. Takkiraja. Niladanda and Mahahala. 


PP 1*7. 418. 



The Lord of ghosts AparAjita 1 is also noticed in this work. In later 
tides this AparAjita was closely associated with the deity BhtitftdA- 
tnara and was said to have delivered to the Lord the Hfday* Mantras 
of all the ghosts and to have promised to do no injury and he 
friendly and favourable always to the people of Jambudvlpa. The 
deity Ekaja(&* is also mentioned in the body of the hook and this gives 
rise to certain chronological difficulties. Because, as has been shown 
elsewhere. EkajatA SAdhana was restored from the country of Bho|a 
by Siddha NAgArjuna who flourished in the middle of the seventh 
century.' But as the present work is much earlier this diflieulty can be 
met by the fact that though the name RkajafA was known her SAdhana 
waa probably unknown which was brought by NAgArjuna from Bho^a, 
Or. probably the SAdhana of EkajafA was known in the time of the 
OuAyammAja I Hit was subsequently forgotten which aooounts for the 
neoesaity of restoring the SAdhana from the country’. Moreover, it 
Iium also to lie remembered that tin- Mantra given for KkajafA in the 
SOdfuntanUUA is uniformly Mated as //rfito RMm //Am Phaf, whereas 
in the (luhynMunlkia it is given aa 0* £ft/iat SviAA. This difference 
in the Mantras it a great difference and it may he surmised that the 
KkajatA of the ami KkajaU of NAgArjuna an- two quite 

distinct deities without any direct eon nect ion except that they were 
both Buddhistic. Whether NAgArjuna of the Rkaja^A SAdhana can 
be identified with the famous Aladbvamaka NAgArjuna the disciple of 
AAvagho*a is a question which require* to he more oloecly invwtti- 
gatnd in this connection. CundA is another important deity to be men- 
tioned in the present work.' Her name appears in the earlier work, 
namely, the MaA)u4rlmilakalpa * and she was well-known many hun- 
dreds of years afterwards. CundA is mentioned in the tiihamtmuctayo ' 
of SAntideva in the 8th century and several SAdhana* devoted to her 
worship are recorded in the Ahttanamil*.' She used to be represent- 
ed as one-faced and four-armed or as one-faced and six teen -armed. 

* pp. T». 74. SI, 1 18 and .nAMWriH. pp. 51 J. Ml. 8 p 88. 

* introduction. p. itv and 'Mhun. No. 1*7. wh~c in the ooiophon 
the -tntenient occurs as— 

via *twh<j i 

* p. m. She ia railed her. as r>«fcva|rf. 

* Op oil., p. IS I. mantidMd as Candr*. which ought to ba CuodX; for. in the 
Hu.ldhlet Pantheon, there ia no other deity, who ran bs mentioned aWis with T*r* 
Bhrhuti and Hay.griva. 

* Op. at., p. 17X » SAdhana* Noa. l». 1*. 131. 



Only one image of the four-armed variety ha* up till now been 
discovered and it belongs to the collection of an American solicitor 
of New York. Mr. W. B. Whitney.' A sixteen -armed image, was 
installed as PatfikerA in Rengal as we know from one of the minia- 
tures of a PrajAAparamita manuscript now preserved in the Library 
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal* A stone image of the sixteen- 
armed variety has been published by Proftrwor A. Foucher in his 
studies in Buddhist Iconography * Another perfect image of this 
deity is to be found in the Durga temple at Kurkihar, the present site 
of ancient KukkutapAda VihAra near (Jav* 

The deity of hoary antiquity, namely. Jambhala.' the god of 
wealth, also make* his appearance in this work showing hi* unqumtion- 
able popularity even amongst th<*c who have left the workl ami have 
taken to Yaugic practices. Jambhala retained his popularity ever 
afterwards as a large number of SAdhana* are to be found in the 
84dhanam6til s ami his imagre are met with in the Magadha. Bengal, 
Nepal and Tibet schools of sculpture 

The popular god MaAjuirl is mentioned four time* as MaAjuirl 
and thrice as MaAjuvajra * showing at once the popularity of this 
Buddhist god of knowledge and learning. A» has been shown already. 
MaAjuirl is the chief figure in tho earlier work .VaAjutilm(llahiIf*i 
where MaAjuirl is represented as the same as the Hindu god KArtti- 
keya. T If we are to believe in the testimony of the Mn&juMmftla- 
kalpa then it must be assumed that MaAjuirl is a definitely Hindu 
deity of the PurAnas incorporated in the Buddhist Pantheon. The 
evidence of the above work is important in finding out the true origin 
of MaAjuirf who is one of the most popular dritiee of the Buddhist 
Pantheon, and whose origin was so long shrouded in mystery. Mafi- 
juirl is referred to by subsequent writers of Buddhism and the 

• Sw the artide : Tkr omly .mar ofCaaM in ih- Prt*e#ding> ol l ha Labor* Oriental 
Confrrmor, pp. I II1-III3. 

1 'w illnrtration In Bhattaaali S. K I I ro mopr a pky of fiirWul and Bnkminital 
S-ulfAiurf in I hr Dam Mummm. plain I. d. and p II (sprit hrr« aa CnndS). 

* Op. «•«.. in Frmdi. Part I. ft*. ». 

• p I S3. 

i dSdhauaa. Nor. 284-299. pp. S90-M3. So* abo Indian UuddbiM Icom^rapi/y. 
113 H. 

* pp. Id. SI. W. 87. 97. 121. ISJ 

' *a» lor inrtane*. op. eit-. p. 45. whrrr Ma6ju4rf .. <•**! ar Klrtukrya-mafljidri i 




great Buddhist work the Gandtuyika make* Maftjuiri ihe hero and 
describes hip exploits, wonderful powers and knowledge. 1 Numerous 
Sftdhanas of this deity are to be found in the SManamiit* and his 
images are to be .seen everywhere in Samath. Bengal. Magadha, 
Tibet and Nepal ami even in Japan. China and Mangolia* 

Avalokiteivara or Lokeivara the prototype of MafijuM iR also 
mentioned in the GuhyuaiHAja though his identity is somewhat more 
difficult to establish. He sometimes appears as a deity and some- 
times as one of the members of the Assembly asking questions or 
answering questions very probably on behalf of the Lord of the 
Assembly. But Loketvara here is undoubtedly represented by tho 
great compassionate Bodhisattva who sacrificed his emancipation 
until all the beings of the universe were delivered from their mweriwi 
anil obtained salvation. Lokrtvare is the chief figure in the dnttftvtft 
Vy*\a where ho is associated with AmiUbha the Lord of the Sukhftvatl 
heaven. H» popularity led the Buddhists of Nepal to oonceive 
no less than 108 different forms and is well illustrated In tho 
numerous sculptures found in Samath. Magadha Bengal, Nepal, 
Tibet, Chine* ami Japanese schools of art • 

The other Bodhisattva to be mentioned is Maitreya or the Future 
Buddha who is to come down to the earth full four thousand years 
after Gautama ami obtain Ruddhahood. Another Bodhisattva is 
Vajrnp&yi who is known long in Buddhism and makes his appearance 
in the GuMyaHimaja. In later times he figure* in the Buddhist 
Pantheon as the Bodhisattva springing from the DhyAni Buddha 
Akjobhya who has for his symbol the well-known thunderbolt. Vaj- 
rnpAni being his emanation also has the thunderbolt as his recognition 

An anomalous name in the GuhyatnmAfa is rep resented by 
VajrAsattva who is inextricably mixed up with Vajradhara. Here 
both appear to be the highest Buddhist god. the personification of 
Sflnya. In later days a sharp distinction was drawn between the two : 
Vajradhara and Vajrasattva. the former being the same as the highest 
— * 

* H»,« Kajmdra Lai Mira: StpmUm bntUhim Liter*..: dasrnptioa of 
vyC&o on pngs 90. 

1 SMhanas. No* 

* For details regarding hWtory sod scolptaiw see Indian BnddhUi Iconography, 
pp. IMI. 

* Ibid. pp. 323. 



Buddhist god. the personification of &unva, (he latter occupying a 
much inferior position as the sixth Dhyani Buddha who is Supposed 
to bo the priest of the five Dhyani Buddhas. He was also given 
a Sakti, Vajrasattvatmika. and a Bodhisattva. C.haflja|»ftni. by name 
in exactly the same way as the five Dhy&ni Buddhas were each given 
u Sakti and a Bodhisattva But Vajrasattva do** not appear in the 
Guhyaiatiiaja as a Dhvam Buddha ; here lie is the samo as Vajradhara 
the highest god of the Buddhist Pantheon the personification of 

Amongst the minor gods we find mention of Ek&ksara and 
Sum bha besides several Hindu god* occupying a minor position in the 
Buddhist Pantheon such as Vispu. Indra. Hudra or diva and Sad the 
wife of Indra. 

The mention of the deities referred to above in the Gtthyaaam&ja 
shows that they were known in the 3rd century A.D., when the 
Onhi/aanm&jtt was composed This further shows that the stage of 
development in rrspeet of the Buddhist Pantheon as represented in 
the work was very crude and many deities acre not included. Even 
the Dhy&ni Buddha fatnilie# wen* not fully developed as wo do not 
find any Bodhisattva assigned to the progenitor* of the different 
Kiilas or families Furthermore, a clear cut demarcation between 
Vajradhara and Vnjraaattva was not made In the Qyihf/atamAja 
though in later times they wen entirely distinct. It is. therefore, 
extremely probable that the deities mentioned in this work are the 
earliest and the original deities of the Buddhist Pantheon. 

It is Headiest to point out that the Guhytuatn/tja attracted the 
attention of the later TOntrica affiliated to Buddhism, and that it 
enjoyed a great popularity amongst them. The SiddhAeAryyaa find 
VnjrAcAryyas of the Tftntrie age were very fond of the work and wo 
find many translations of commentaries made by them preserved in 
Tibetan Tangyur though most of these commentaries are now lost in 
Sanskrit. Some authors notably Indrabhfiti and Padtnavajra made 
digests of the whole Tantra in their works, quoting as authority 
passages from the GuAyasamaja in support of their contentions. 
Advayavajra also referred to the doctrine# of the Gvhyamm/tfa school 
in support of his teachings a* given in the Advayaivjramfaghrahn. 

• lb*, pp. ««v.i tl. muI p. «. •!•> VajfMhm IW*tir B in the Jmm» al of 

tftr fiihar and Ori**a R**ar rA .Sorwfy. Vol ix« j. 114. 



The work waa designated by the Siddhas a* the A*{tulaia]Kt(aln allow- 
ing the popularity of the Gukyaaamafa amongst the Siddhae and tho 
faet of its containing in ail eighteen chapters only. Amongst the 
earlier commentaries on the G'a kyammija those of N&g&rjuna (645 
A.D.), KranAc&rya (717 A.D.), UUrajra (741 A.D.\ RatnAkaras&nti 
(978 A. I).), dantideva (695 A.D.) are worthy of mention. The litera- 
ture including commentaries on the Gukyaearndja extant in Tibetan 
translations in the Tangyur collection is quite extensive as can lie 
ween from the following list : — 


Sri ttuhy— miyapsAjik* 


Aryadova Acirya 

• • 

Sri GuhyasamijanifpannakrainAataka 



.. T. 1 

1 Sri Guhyaaam4jamaodalop4yik4 

( ISO) 


Sri fluhyaaarn4)as4dhai>aakidhi • 




.. T. 




.. T. 

' iuliy— amljanmodalopayiki 

< 1391 

»nA ) mn-^U.p4 > .ka 

1 io*'i 

Gui.akara Oapta 

• ■ 

Sri t Jnhy aawm4) AbhMntay a- i iftina • 




• • 





• • 




.. T. 

Sri Guhya*M&A)Mi*otra-rl)a-rrtii 


- .. (original 1 



< nibyMaroAjatanlrarftiatlkA 



.. T. 

Sri GubyaaamAiainaodalopAyikAvithta- 



IKpUilum Hhadm 

Sri GiihysaamAjankAodalavidhi utnw . . 


.. T. 

Sri G u hy a *am A >as y • MaAjuM- 




.. T. 

Sri Goby— mi|alokeavaraa4dhana 



Sri GuhvasanUjawotra 


Sri GuhyaMmAjaloktdvaraaAdhana 




Sri OuhyaaainAjaatotrs 



• • 

krmmmM bmnmmft t r»mnU«k* 



1 RaCaNMW ore to the fin* Tohime ol P. Cordiar'a CiWlnyr d u Fonda T Attain it 
la BMloO*** Motional. L»U hats b~t> takro from tba appendix of the Baaddha Oln 
0 Do*a in Bengali by Mm. Harapr*«Ad <bwan 
* T. ihowa Tibotan Iranrfalior^. 


xx xi 


Sri (I uhy a*ami|* - maiidalopA vikA viibAa- 




Sri Oub>MamAiamaitd*bividhi uaina . . 


Sri C uhyasamA jat Antmaya Tantmtika 


Sri CiihyaiiainAiamaltAyoKauuilrulpaUi- 

kmmaaAdhana .fiinunelipaka 



A*tAda*apatala« totf vyikhyi 


PidntkmvHBM . . 


Sri OuhyaaaniAjaiiuuidkla-vidhi nAma.. 



Sri « ;»hya—mAiaUnwarA,aWkA-Candra- 


ptabhA nAma 



CpadManiMaya-nAma SriKiihyaaamAja- 





Sri .Saha|a«ubyaaunA>a -Adhana 




Sri Oub>anainA)aianlra*ya TantratlkA- 




Ku<umAAjali nAma UuhyaaamAja 







Sri 1 iuhyaaamAjalanlrarAjaiiki 




Sri • ’• ah vaaamAjapaA )>k A 



Sri GuhyaaainAtAlankAra nAma 



Sri • iiikya"amA j«tanlmrA)ot tara tantra 

■> Ama«tAdaaapatalft- |«Orvard ha • 

palArtha pkA vy AkliyAl.a 




Sri GtihyarainAja-mandala-vnUii 





Sri « .uhya*ainAjaiuaodalo|»AyikA 



(2) Sri Gubyaa^nAia-aAdhana -iddhi 

•ambhava-ntdh) nama 



« iiihyaaamA)aarihana 



Sri GnhyaanmAja-mahAvoicn.tanira- 

ball vidhi nAroa 




Ku«un)»iijah-nima Guhya-an.Aja- 



Sraddhukaravanmn . 


i Jiihya-araAiaOdhana 



Sri «:.ihyaaamAja.nandaIad«vakAya- 

-toira nima 



Sri <!nhya*amAjatantra.vivarana 


Sainantnbhndrnpnda. . 

Sri < inhyasamA jasva MaAjufri- 




Sri GuhyaaamAjaaya Mafijuiri- 

-odliana* .. 




8unay*4rimitr» .. ||) Guhya*un&j*lank*ra-n&ma .. (1«| 

(S) A»t*dai*p4i«Uvy4khyin* .. ( 145 ) 

(*> GuhynramAja wmkupta-mibodha. 

•idhtuaima .. ( |A3| 

SubhAsiUt .. T. S?ri Guhyas*ra*,*mao<laW.vidhi -alma. . (135) 

Sthsgnn* .. Stf QafcyaaamKjatantra-vivamQa - .. ( I4«> 

In the jMnasiddhi of Indrabhftti the Ouhtfaaam&ja is quoted 
extensively. 1 showing tlie reverence and authority the Qukyasamdja 
enjoyed in his time. The Aliayara/raMiHi^raha also draws its materi- 
als “ from the (luhyasam&fa in support of iU doctrine*, and as Advaya- 
vajra belonged to the 10th century A D., the (MfasamAja appear* 
to have maintained it* authoritative character throughout the T&ntrio 
Period. The reason why we do not tind any mention of the (Juhya- 
satnAja before Nagarjuna (7th century A.D.). is because the Tantra 
was kept secret among the |>rofr**on. and the doctrines inculcated 
therein were confined to 11 few adept* for three hundred years until 
Buddhist Tantra* of the Yoga and Yogatanlra classes obtained pub- 
licity during the time of the UiddhAcAryya* mainly through their 
mystic songs, pn aching* and works 

Tlie chief problem Connected with the composition of the Ouhya- 
namAja IS to ascertain fairly aoouratc data which will cntahlish the 
time when the work wa« written Hut this is dependent on the 
correct dating of another w«wk which ha* l-'en published in original 
Sanskrit and is known as tlie ManjntrtmAlaknJpa The work was long 
forgotten in India and it was known only from its Tibetan and Chinese 
translations; one manuscript of thi« work was accidentally discovered 
by the indefatigable scholar the late MahtmahopAdhylya T Gannpati 
lilstrf and published by him in the Trivandrum Sanskrit Sr r its. It 
was discovered in I W09 from the Manalikkara Mat ham near Padmanh- 

• p. 12 p . 13. ^ufirawTR*: * 

p. 37 -* wi«rw p 3* «ie w ■wJhr* 

p. 39 *iaaiaf*nrawn»i'. p T *> 

p. us *tnnt omsu 1 , p. 1 as wii Jlw«" 

p. |M wa'frfmni sed Uw an. ,««. m JHbmWU in Tiro Vajntfna 
*.rort- <0-0.8. No. It) pp. 77. 77. 77. 7*. 7*. 78. 78. 78. 76. 

* For mMan.-r. to p. flu URIUWtfilir JlW «*«ns to have 

special affinity towards the verse tW SRilirfTfV. Sc., on p. 163 of tho proem t work. 
Also tho verve ot Advayatajra. p. 19 -OW1* *8*fts 8T 8 81 g8888r»fr I tllwfVfC^ 

8 I b*> a ennoos fearmbUnce to tho apoorh ol tho Lord 

■m 8 hWT 8 8, o*c.. *p.». which is qwrted In IndrabhOti, p. 73. 



hlmpumm ia South India. It u a palm-leaf manuscript and con- 
sists of about 13,000 granthas, and written in Devanagari charade** 
with ink. From its appearance the manuscript seems to be about 300 
to 400 years old, and the writing i» perfectly clear and legible. The 
copyist of the manuscript is one Ravicandra who went out from 
Madhyadela. This Ravicandra made a remark in the last colophon 
that he had written the Kalpa of Arya MartjuAri as was available, and- 
this shows that the original from which he oopied was itself incom- 

The work among others treats of the .MAntric texts of ManjuAri 
KumArabhOta whom the author several times designates as KArttikeya 
and introduce* him with several Saiva but non TAntric deitie*. 
Details of practice* which l***tow long life, health and happiness and 
for the attainment of all deaired object* arv given. The work Is in 
the form of a Kaiiglti and the conversation- are held mostly between 
$»kyamuni and KumAni MaAjutrl. Iioth of them Iwing sometime* 
interrogated by the Assembly of the Faithful 

It i* not necoaary to state that this work is very important for 
the history of the development of TAntric idea*, tend* and practice**, 
and provide** a landmark in the prnc«M of those development*. It 
was t ranslated into Tibetan ami it lind*a place in the Tibetan Kangyur. 
It was also translated into (.'hinane in the 10th century A. I). 1 

In thi* work which has been nghtly styled by Dr. Wintomitr. a* 
a TAntric work we find mention of a large number of god* and goddetw- 
m, several ancient work* like SuvanjaprahliAsa. Oa^avyOha, I'rajfta- 
pAromitA, Caiidrupradipwamidlii.* .» large number of MudrA*. ami 
descriptions of Mandala* with special directions for painting them and 
innumerable rite* for attaining Siddhi* or perfection*. 

It is very difficult to tix its time in view of the most conflicting 
type* of evidence found in the book. A* i« well-known von’ few 
works of ancient Sanskrit literature have survived which have not 
undergone considerable change or rather expansion after their first 
composition. The N<iAj\itrii*Hlokalpa must have hail a similar fate 
and the book which is at prwnt available contains amplifications, and 
expansion* of the original matter in order that it may become a 

« Xanjio : -I Catalog of CUmm TnpiuU, No. I OTA TnuwUtol by Th,<*-«-t«i 
A.D. 930 1001. 20 funiculi. JS chapter*. p. 232-11. 

* Op. git, p. 3H. 



convenient handbook for the priest*. Everything of importance 
seem* to have been entered in it in order that it may be of some 
service to the priests for their numerous clients. 

The Guhyaaamaja also is written in a SaAgiti form and its obvious 
object is to introduce the &akti worship or legalise it for the first time 
in Buddhism, and for this purpose in the very first chapter it gives a 
Man da la where the five Dhyani Buddhas are introduced and are given 
oach a Sakti These five DhyAni Buddhas represent the five elements 
ROpn. YedunA. SamjAA. SamskAra and VijAAna of which the world is 
oompoaed, and in order that th«e elements may be able to fulfil their 
creative purpose they are given a Aakti. and this is evidently the 
object for which the OukptMtm&ja was introduced in the Assembly of 
the Faithful. It cannot bo said definitely when this Tantra was 
composed, but this i- certain that whenever the five Dhyini Buddhas 
are met with and wherever their 6akli- are mentioned specially in 
groups, it is hut natural to assume tliat such refnvnoaa should be 
chronologically later than the time of the OsAyrisaiaA/u. But when 
ivo refer to tho SAd liana of AcArya A*anga the famous YogAeflra 
philosopher of the MahAyAna who flourished in the Mrd orntury A.D., 
we find not only that all the five DliyAni Buddha- are mentioned 
together, hut their &aktis. five in number, also ap|***r in the same 
SAdhana. 1 It is. therefore, very natural to prwmmc that tho SAdhanu 
of Asaiiga must be later tlian the time of the GuApammAfa which for 
the first time introduced the doctrine of the live Dhyini Buddhas and 
their tfakti*. 

Again, according to the Tibetan and Chinese traditions the Tantra* 
wore introduced by AsaAga from Tusita heaven where he learnt the 
SiVstrn from Maitrvya Buddha who was awaiting hi- descent to ourth. 
Now for the Tantra to he called a real Tantra there must be the 
element of Sakti in it. Without $akti there cannot be a true Tanlra 
or a Tantra par txetUatc *,* and this Sakti is jierinitted for the first 
time in the GnkynmmAja. It is thus very probable that Asanga had 
something to do with the Gtthyvnmaja Tantra. as otherwise we cannot 
explain the reason of this coincidence. It is very likely therefore that 
Asaiiga' who belonged to the 3rd century A.D.. is the author of the 
Ouhtjatamaja Tantra. 

I ,-Mhu. No. loS, p. asi. Tbo «Aop6on m M lollo»*- 

wivnfinrvrv* vwixg i «fsf*v uiviwiwfrgiwn i 

* Hnrspra-od ShaMri : lalrodocuoa lo Uoirm B»1iU*n. p. 10 



TArAnAtha further tells us that the Tantra* immediately after 
introduction were transmitted secretly in an uninterrupted manner 
from preceptor to disciple* for nearly .Vtfi years' before they pot 
publicity through the mystic teaching* of the Siddhas and Vajr&cAryas. 
TArAnAtha’* evidence in this respect is exceedingly important in deter- 
mining the evolution of the Tantric proce**. Auriga must have 
introduced something very objectionable, at least, seemingly so to the 
ordinary public, and what could that posibly be if not the element of 
fclakti which was introduces! by him. And if. after the introduct ion of 
Tantra, it U secretly transmitted how is it possible for either the 
Ouhyatam&ja to draw upon the material* of AaaAga. or for the latter 
to obtain them from the Gnkyamm/tja f We can only explain this 
coincidence by holding that Asanga had something very material to 
do with the introduction of the <Mgomm4ja Tantra. 

In every TAntric work great importance is given to the DhyAni 
Buddha theory Kither they are directly mentioned or the Hijaman- 
tras or deities emanating from them are mentioned. The*® DhyAni 
Buddhas, as can be surmised from numerous references. were the 
originators of five Kula* or familicM. each family having a large numlier 
of deitio* emanating from one particular DhyAni Buddha. Anyone 
who ia acquainted with the Buddhist TAntric work* cannot fail to ho 
struck by the innumerable reference* to the DhyAni Buddhas; and 
this theory, to say the least, is the very groundwork on which the grand 
structure of tho Buddhist Pantheon is built. It is hut natural to 
suppose that all original Tanfras. at lea-t. will mention the DhyAni 
Buddhas together, particularly if they are concerned with the forma- 
tion of the Mnndala. The Mandala or the magic circle is the miniature 
prototype of the big Caitya*. and was in vogue from the very early 
times. To form a Mandala the presiding deities of the different 
directions are necessary, and these directions are marked by placing 
four DhyAni Buddha* or their symbol* in the four cardinal directions 
without assigning a place to Vairocana who is supposed to bp in the 
middle and. therefore, not very frequently represented. 

But when these DhyAni Buddha* do not appear in an important 
book like the MulakaJpa it sets one thinking. In it numerous Mandalas 
are described and there is more than one occasion for a mention to bo 
made of the five DhyAni Buddha.* who are ordinarily mentioned in 

I Sn Kara : of p. m. 



almost every Buddhist Tantric work. But nowhere are these DhyAni 
Buddha* mentioned. The obvious reason for this omission or discrep- 
ancy seems to be that the theory of the five DhyAni Buddhas was not 
established when the 3laAjntrimilahUpa was composed. And. indeed, 
the MBlakalpa presents an earlier stage of thought than what is found 
in the OuhytimmUja. because we find occasionally the names of 
AmitayuH, Amit&bha. LocanA. Ratnaketu. VajrapAni. Avalokitetvara, 
Maniakl Ratnapdpi. etc., mentioned but not in a systematic form as 
we find in the Ouhyaaantdia. In the Oukfamm/kfa, for instance, the 
name* of the DhyAni Buddhas are given a* Arait&bha, Aksohhya. 
Rutnaketu. Vairocana, and Amoghasiddhi : the name* of their 6aktia 
a* Dvrwarati, Moharati. Irsvlrati. Vajrarati and Ragarati, represent- 
ing the five Rmldha-Sakii* Locani, .Mimaki, TArA. I'ApdarA and 
AryatArA. It i* well-known that rive Bodhiaattva* emanated from 
these pair* and they were known a* VajrapAni. PadmapAni. Ratna- 
pAni, ViAvapAni. CakrapApi or fiamanUbharfra. In the .lfoit/t/Jrl- 
mBlakalpa some of the*- figure- appear hut the names an- not scienti- 
fically or methodically arranged an we find them in the GbAgusiiifiOju or 
in later TAntric works. Moreover, the Ma*jutrlm(,lnhilpa give* certain 
Mantras which also appear in the Qnk yammh ja. In the latter the 
number of the Mantras is five and each DhyAni Buddha i- given one. 
namely. Jinajik. Arolik. Vajradhrk. Katnadhrk and PrajAAdhrk. The 
Kula* there ns usual are mentioned as five. But the MaUjuirimtla- 
kiil/xt mentions something like six Msntnu* : as Jinajik, Arolik, Vajra- 
dhrk. SurArak. YakfAUk and PinAdhrk.' and associate- the first, 
three only with three families: TalhAgatakula. Padmakula and 
Sarvavairnkula. 1 while the others are not referred to any Kula or 

The above instance- are sufficient to show that the theory of 
live DhyAni Buddhas was not known when the MBlakalpa was com. 
posed, but only some of the names were in existence though not. 
exactly as DhyAni Buddhas. The evidence of Jfftfobafpa further 
shows that the Mantra* assigned to the DhyAni Buddhas as found in the 
GuhyaMm&}a were not known in their entirety though some of them 
indeed appear in the work. The Kula* were also not a* well developed 
in the MBIakalpa as in the and though the names of 

» Op. eit.. pp. 3»l. »>. 

* Ibid. The portlia -tone the unn sod Mantra* oi *om* of the TalhSgHtas 
appear. Mira to be the part of the original — ork in riew of the remark* of the Editor 
at the lop of the page- The pa*w of the original MS my probably got topsy-turvy. 



some of them are found in the work they are neither in the same form 
nor in the same order nor hare the same number. From the evident* 
of the M6ltikn//>a it appears a* if the MilahUpa offered material* to 
the writer of the OmhyaMmAja to develop upon them, and thus the 
Gukyatamafo on the strength of the evidence adduced must l»e preceded 
by the MaUjukrimUabalpa. 

If the Ouhij>i*ambja Tantra can l«c aligned to the 3rd century 
A.D., and made contemporaneous with the great YogftcAra philoso- 
pher Asanga the time of the composition „f the Ma*juirlm9lakaipa 
has to bo pluccd at trait one hundred year* earlier, namely in the 
2nd century A D. Some of the critic* of thi* theory will contend 
that thi* AaaAga of the PrajAApAmmitA SAdhana may not he the 
same a* the YogAoAra philosopher Asanga. Against thi* it may In* 
pointed out that ill the TAntric age up till now no other A*artga except 
one i* known, and therefore, the critic* who offer a counsel of per- 
fection mIioiiM themselvea And the other hypothetical A-.hyn who 
I* different from the YogAeAra author. 'fU© onu* of proof rent* with 
them. Moreover, AsaAga i» made in the Sblh«nntnil& an author of 
the PruAjApAramitA SAdliana. and this PmjAA|*rafni1A i« nothing hut 
the deification of the PrajAaparamitA literature which was. necordiitg 
to the Buddhiit tradition, rescued by NAgArjuna from the nether 
region* NAgArjuna i* the tame a* the XAgurjuna the founder of the 
Madhyarnaka school who flourished in the 2nd century A. I*., and 
we know definitely that PrajAApArainitA was translated into the 
Chinese language between 265 and 313 A.D.. and there i- no earthly 
reason why Asanga who flourished in the latter part of the 3rd 
century should not have known of PrajAApAramitA when the Chinese 
were reciting and even translating the work. 

Other critic* will say that the Ma*i*himitabiti*i cannot be 
dated in the 2 nd century, as it mentions the DinAras not only 
while enumerating the numerous benefit* arising out of the Yaksiijl 
SAdhann but also several times elsewhere in the work. The*e DinAra* 
a* is well-known were struck in India in imitation of the Roman coin 
Denarii. The golden DinAra believed to he the first of its kind was 
struck in Peraia in 77 A.D. 1 Amarakusa gives DinAra as a synonym 
for Xi?ka. a gold coin.* On the authority of Amara it may l>e safely 

I CasMTs En-ylct* ><U< Dtrticmaff. p. »l. see t hr «onl • Dinar * 

- JhalkikafV .liaeiMo. p. 2*»— 



concluded that the Diniras were known in India in about 400 A.D.. if 
not earlier. The mention of Dinara in the MaAjvkrlmblakal/xi will 
lead many to think that the work cannot be earlier than 400 A.D. 
But aa it has been already pointed out that the ifaUjutrimfilakalpa as 
at present available is not the original but mixed up with composi- 
tions which were added to the original later on. In Nanjio’a Catalog** 
of tJo> Chinese Tripitalca we find that the work was translated into 
Chinese BO late as the 10th century A.D.. »mt then it had not more than 
twenty-eight chapters in all, but the printed edition which is at pre- 
sent before us contains no lew than fifty-fire chapters. It may fur- 
ther be observed that the work was translated into Cfclnaa e in the 10t.h 
century nearly *00 venrs after its composition, and there is, therefore, 
a very reasonable ground in holding that certain later additions were 
made to the work which was still smaller in extent, hut the original 
extent of the work at present is difficult to determine. 

From the above it i« not difficult to imagine that the MahjuM- 
mQIakalfia originally consisted of twenty-eight chapter- or even lees, 
and later on two or three separate books were added on to it to make 
it a complete manual for the priest*. It may I xi rioted that the word 
iMiiAm curiously enough, doe* not occur in the first twenty-seven 
chapter*, but immediately after it in the 28th.' though in the first 
twenty-seven chapter* there are several occasions, particularly in the 
Yakijini Sid liana, where Dlnira- could have been naturally mentioned. 
Therefore, simply because the Dlnira is mentioned in the MaAjuirU 
mtlakalpa the work cannot be dated after the fifth century for a* has 
been shown above the word doc* not occur in the first twenty-seven 
chapters which are the original and the more ancient part of the 
whole work now recognized as the Ma*jvtrimvlakaljja. In tliese 
twenty-seven chapters at least there i* nothing to show that the work 
is later than the 2nd century A.D. If that be so. the Gnhyasamaja 
which develops the materials presented in the aforementioned work 
should he placed naturally somewhat later, and as it is connected with 
Asaiiga, as shown before, it «bould be regarded as a product of the 3rd 
century A.D., or a little later according as the time of Asanga is taken 
to be the 3rd or the 4th eenturv A.D. 


‘ Op. Jta. .... gyifk i The JSih cliapi-r 

certainly ia a U«.r addiieni surf nr.* have bm arklad .luring the o, a ht huivlre.1 yea r. 
between the composition of the om&nal work and the dnto of Ha Chine** tranalnUuu. 



Introduction ... 

jj id * ; 

•fdfl' ••• 

fwrm»niR?'wTra*r ... 

oc*u4iia*w^*w*®zwt *ti?! 


«*nr*nviiaf*i«wqzwt <mp 

• •• 

•ft fnrann iviwfmfw «re*n <^<i’ 
«^f*fi*nw«ii*Btfw*rwtfw>dw rcw: Wt€w: 

• •• 

i •’TW «d*t4^l«n: 

• •• 

Index of words 
Index of verses 

Fa on 








< w 





«* I 

hoh: i 

q* TOT l qqffarsr HTO mtoi^ to- 
TOTTOOTTOT^fa*T T7qra^fqf*fq : faTOTT I 

TOfronqi^fTOIRl: tow*«i ^qTO wrnpw.TTO- 

^jtototto: i tttot i ^totoh *i 5fm 
^fa^irs* TOTTOq* I qnqq^jni q *TO qTfaro* 
wvraito i ^ mu wlfaqinT toutto i 

q qn? qtfqqqq totto* i **11 fawn 
q m*? qlfaroq totto^ i qqwn q qm qtfa- 
qro qf i*wq i ijfrotqqrq q qm qtfaqqq 
qTITOq I TO'qTO q •TT*? qtfaq^q TOTTOq | 
qqte^q q qr* qtfaqqq toito* i qig^TO q 
qm qtfaqqq TOiTOq' i q qm qtfa- 

qqq UTTTO I qqqTO q qTO qtfaqqq TOTqqq I 
q^wn q qrq qtfaqqq TOtroq i qarwir q 

1. B adds ' jpo ° I 2. The explanation of this quaint beginning 
is given by Indrabhuti in his fnanatiddhi (G. O. S.) p. 58 thus : — 

*P1 Wiifon TOQnVI<atol.4<4l'\. M*i *Pi«T I 

8. B VTO 3 | *. B omits. 


•TTF I T*PWW ^ ?ITO <lfc*W4 

*vrenfa i ww'w ^ srra *m*ft*r i 

tf*tn?prani ^ *TTO ftrfwir* *m*PHl I 

4 ?roni?i: i 

nsrcr i infrwrita ^ w? twtw™ i stwi- 

*£*7 r| 5|lfl r ’ ?l?n»I7T^ I ^ ’H** 

?wt*t?r i vf*n\ ^ *m' J itorrr i qnjt*. 
*ra*7 ^ ?n*r Tram** i 

*T*T«TiJ*T?jqflT'in : ?itf *rom?l: i 
HOTT I Tift *ITO f?l»lfTOfW* qf^«: ^T^TljyTg: 
^sroft »it i 

tto m^t^ n **i!<t^iT«?TOi!in: *4n»7m?T- 
wtTrnrasr *rro ^rwiffci ^wm*: 19 ft ?ri?i*iT»T?isznj 
wrmwrfwraty 1 nftu ,s *T«n* i vr ft *i- 
ironrm iro**:' 3 «q7T^i*T?rqire*raf%Traiifoqft: 
qftnluw? igfft^nfft" ratfq^T5tjfH i: f^jrra *nr*ftt 
§Tt^«r qmn^'fftwT^n * 0***1 i *=* %fa?j 
wt^*n*nT*ir %fa?j *?TJ?^n^itu %f*7j qnrgw- 
faiOTOTT*! %f*r* »TlT5?rrTT«Ttni *fsrm *0**?J | 

1. AC H^g 0 I 2. BC add 0 Ho& 0 , 3. BC ° ^nn 0 I 

4. A adds lf$ ' \ 3. A omits. 0. A ° giH ° I 7. BC c »s^T ° I 
8. BC 0 V* 0 I 9. BC ° ^ ° , 10. A ° gjn | II. A omits 0 g , 

12. a nfaft*? i is. a ?*. i i». a c qfo* \ <nn« «gfamfa i 

13. A 0 jqij I 16. BC | 

non: i 

7^ ^q^RT^TTq Wifad S?^*3HiaT3iTT*>I 

%fa^ TO^WIWT^TT^l %fad RW*mim«fiTT«H 

*Sfenn i 

iiq nqWaranm: a£aanT?TqiT?i*i«?Ta?T- 

fanngi *?*nm?j*?iTsa«fa- 


a mpsml a m*m*A a*?ain: i 
qmfafamiA *jf*nr»TTTO9r*f 1 
«rarf^«ns*i?ni awmanrct gr*i 11 

w naaia «ia*iiraarra*i*f^^faqfh: 

^ * 

*w*tot»kwi!5*ihw nfamanm? i *ro ^**r xnjm- 
WT*lfl: Tar%giaquid: 'Rfadig'iamnn: ^alafaff- 
»?fOT»r?f: arfafaarasi nmiraai 

from i 

m h«t*r affiffaraOTrarati: trftraramftr- 
aaaro* an? aaif a aama: i awaarcTOrqa^i a 
aaamaaTfa<?a: vmf aaiafiTaanj: aamrrafl- 
W*f: *i%msH7j I aa aisar: aateisiaig- 

afadT: aaaai: ai V aa'° asraaifaaiaa aa- 
aaiad^f^aaaiWTfaatsaa^ i 

aa aaai^ atfafaa^araiaa: aananTdami- 
2n«f^TT^^5PU?^«^5a ,u an? aarfy aaiasiaT 

1. BC °W B | 2. A anil* ° l # 3. A omit*. +. A 

°W°I 3. BC°^°| 0. BC °- °* I 7. IlC ndil ° 2f«| ° | 

8. A°H°I 9. A omits. 10. A*| II. A ®|3 | 

*rrer i wnrarafiifamriv * rm ^rM^fr- 

3 «r^snir?rf*njiqTqiTTHi m i 

mjsi TOlmu^jgi: efrfafafr- 

w ff ujgvisrt ^ifafawwi^n i 
^rimwnl *j*i *tvfi*fa*if*«ii 11 *f?i 11 
sv mra: rnmrmv. TOrairora m*&\ 
*TRJWJ qfmqaOTn^:— 

mm n* to*twij***i i 
Wironnt *j*i mx* g*ro«wq«i ii ifa 11 
w h«t*piJ qTfafaTTra*mmn*rTT?i *qnsn*wm 
*HHT¥ I *t>§ hitw **wrom : 7 i s f<f*j 
*ifT*n*T?Tf 5 iTOfq ^nwrtat f?ris*nri wUmw 
fafa i 

u* mwm: mmmm: vresann: ^immn: i 
^rf««rnRT?!ini , %TTTT *rfirannrcnfipi 

qtro: i ^ns*Tqi%^>p*ifqf»iesfq traiimiiimdr^ 11 ' m- 
?wnrn l, *«i^TOf^T *jtq' f*n£«* fiB*T 13 

qpr *r*n«inTmfaBT^ It^t *remniT?mreriro- 

1. AIJ Sim«8 I S. A omits 5 * I 8. A Jf\ ° | 4. A 

° • *• A ° na: | «. A a°l “.A omits. 8. A adds 

him 9wfnr, him him HHfnnw^ i i»- A °hru° i 

10 . B omits. 11. A ° ?nf«9* ° I 12. H adds. ° 5^ ° | 18. A ?T?ft | 

nan: i * 

*nw*q§: ^nrcranmpit g^hprengwr'^nS ^i^rr- 

* ^ # 

qrf TTOnTTHH *1 TfH^T tflftPial % rft : : ^n*h*wfaf?T I 
am hirr 

fl^n?TT*TflTWTa”n fqf^MT *FRlN 

qqr^? wfq'jwww?? 
froronwro ii ii ^tnfapj HTfwmna 6 

H q* H7T*I3J «qflqFmqnqqTqrfamfq^Tg*m: amft- 
wm*flCT$itinTOq$: 3r*tf«n^wiqiTT»ir arinuPTfr- 
qrTg’qrafif^^TORj *TOflqm?!«T«rqTqifaaTqsr 

sv H*rqi^ *i?mnTmw?r*PWTOa in* *roifa 
*STTO* WtTf9Tq**r*mr^j WqrraqTqrf^nqwt 
ftwrrwurcr ii fiwfimr i hitt%* wfafurnr * 
W HWP[ ^qmn^qnq^r^f^TTfTOTq^qt Srt^*- 

: ftmfiWIT*TTW f\hm\m- 
qmreiqifaTmrsi' ’ qOT i 

am ot*T3j nrnwRTca nm 

**lN »TflTq€r* fWT«fWf* ,, qTO!! *rw- 

fcvuqitflfl 11 T*\TO H wfaR 
wifwrra * q* OTiq ^qcmiq^mqiqjfqfifq^n- 

l. A ° ii ° i 2 . a ami: i «. a add*. 0 «jg ° i 4. ah 
omits °afl°| 5. B ° 3* I 6. A *TO7J | 7. A c * wft I 
8. II omit* " urw ° I o. Be ° I io. B " a^» 5 t , 

There is a break in Ms C up to | i'll. A 6 hj^ ° | 

12. A omits ° gsjwn aiaf^ri ° I 


qiqcTqrrqqiq r\ <* y «i ^fw*a fatrrqqTOT* i 
*ro fiiiwunrirnfPT'fiwrt 

*wifa wuniis vmqqiv- 

farrowit fsreronirra n n wfaR 

^ v 

wfinwnw « 3 uq wqqra «37TOmflqn2PU^fa , fffaOT- 
TtfiTft *ft%*q*JTT ifasjlfa qf?TJmg?Tfl?n»Tq?l?q^ ‘ IW- 
fOTWWT^nTfl »lT?raTiI?ni!qqi^f^q , 3«I TJtfflt 

qq WWig fl^flqiqnnilqqflqflwqqqj •?!*? 
wnfi snnqirt ?mqi«^qrgrer'q^mT^^q «qnq- 
qra°f«mqqrwii fronronv u m \im ii q niiftra 
wfanm « qq vnii^ «qqqmft«Tqqiqi x fq*ifqqiT- 
gqqtf»faqqr*w q?rTHqlqqT*q2f ffrnfa^qin- 
qorni ?^7TOiq^qnqqTq«fq^^y«i snr faift^qroTH i 
*q«lT*qqT Tiqfa^mfartmqwTqT I 

inghq wmmimreqrT: * 11 *f?i u 
^q wqq-R ^Jwnn'^^'^ngTTq'^irroq 13 
WMWlW ^Tq%Ifli Jnq^qfraJTf^qt' ‘Wf!**!*!- 
faTTcpgwjT faOTTqTOTO H BqtfcT II *»qT*QT fqfa:q?T- 

1. A od«b ° «W5 ° I S- A add* ° R3H ° | s. ° ^ q ° | ♦. I« 

° %5f i 5. A add* ^ I C. A c TOTTO I 7. A omits ° W*T ° I 
H. HC°^| »- A.® Horar: I 10. It omits. II. A c i^jRi ° | 
12. II ° q° | 13. A adds only l 14. A ° nMo°, I* 

*JP*T*ri 1* WIWI 

ipn?: ^ti^q^ft *J?^r [ ]- 

^ra «J7T?niT7TI^TITT«T3^ dTO Wflft 

^mTq^nri *T*?reTiraNnrfWf « q> t * rei ^rfarrasrat 
f*WTOT*mr n *rmf?r n ^i^rreit faf*r.*nnrTTOt *r 

1. Homils f^n 5 ! *. A BC both of 

which seem to I* incorrect, itjrfa being the consort of Ak$obhyo 
must be in the middle of the Cnkra or the magic circle. 

nq wrai«f v qitoratt 

v^t ftA^minfi I 

[w iro*T**rcTOTTOnn*u 5 jnq*^ «rni *trtW 
OTrqqurt *TTOfanrofWr ^Tqqrafawwn 
frrerornrrcf i i^riTfa n wsri fafa:**dflHT3T *? 
qq Hiww WTiri^^n^^T^f^^fTOrq^iq: 
faqi-j^unq ] i* 

qq «FT^ «Sflqi*I?TinT t JTT^Tm , n^ ^T»T 
TOTfit *mrTO»rf qr'TnTqrnmfaff ^urer*- 
ftiraMt faqR^mro 11 n*Rfa n xwrot fafrr.qn- 
JTi^t * q* otst* *mTOro*«Tqr*fa*TfTOT- 
q*iq: otawd qfansRi faqfcprram i 
qq W*nT^ q^qiq?T«Tqqrafq , qfa ; R«qT^qq^ 
•TUT TT^nfij *TOTq?jqT »TT?mT»TrTn^rT^TRmf?Tft 
^qnq^I^f^^TWT RTqRqmRT H raTfq II qqRUi 
fafa’.qTRTT^iqt H q* W*RTq HT^qiqnqiTqqRlifqTT 

^ X 

fa«ngw. *?tawt *jwt ^tr^Twt f^^mm \* 
qq nq^TR ^TTrtqsiq^ *rnr *Rqf*i cruris 
»TT?ramrT«n^f5TTfqBI5f qiff ^fTSm ^^TqqT^fqrT- 
q^nqr RreRqunq 11 q*n*rafnii wnu^ fafa-Mri. 

I. BC 31 ^fwi J I 2. The diagram (lie 1.) will show clearly 
that a long portion (of which a conjectural restoration is given here) 
must have been omitted by the copyists. 8. A adds ° 7TH1*I?T ° I 
I. AC add | 5. II omits. 

raraTrawwwTfraiwtizw: raw: i 



sv m*\*[ *t»t tot^ 

totto*J w? 2 «m?M* 

fa^Tnmro 11 n^i^fiTT II 

’qrnfani fafc ww i^ * *ri?ramn- 

WTVTOftnrfTOnjrtl RTOTOfl^TOt inn'll 

fiT fwft^twTO i 

^ro winqiTOTO^rf* 1 ^t*t TOifv 

*mra3rt TOswifasT* *ro *?rafa 

^ww*faTOii«t fa¥H«rom n turor^ 11 

sv\fai[ *? m hw^ sitTOTTORTO- 

siRtfaTTfroixpre: »?3?rnw7T^T»iranVuT qfroftf 

faTft^qTJTO I 

^^Tranrn’vra^TRif^TTTO *ro 

*TWlfa TOTR%I*t 

•TO *TTTWt>i ^TO*raf*TT*5TOt fsTOT^UTO 


ii n wifwn ftfirroni * m 

^frorTORTO^rofa'rTfTOnpre: winsuw^TO^T^i- 


^n^TiTaiTTQ^T^f^rTOHI^^WI^TOQTOT: | 

1. A adds "wj’| ». B omits.- 8. A adds | 4. AB 

° ^grraST I 5. A ° H ° | 6. B omits. 7. B c vFf*n ° | 

fftr *j^r- 

?HTT^ flTIflWlWTS 1 ** m fl « « i fy « <w ^rf^^i^i- 

q^: ITO«to*T*: I 

1. From the colophons of the Chapter* V and VI where 
epithets and 0 CX«lffl«TW occurs, this seems to 

full and the correct title of the book. Uniformity in this respect 
been secured in all places and- different or incomplete reading* 
not noted. 

* 3 J S